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About Access Restrictions to Electronic Resources

Access and use of electronic resources made available by the Becker Medical Library are governed by license agreements between the School of Medicine and publishers or third parties. Several of the electronic resources carry some restriction on their use. Access may be restricted by user location, number of concurrent users, and/or password.

In short, most people experience access limitations based on the network to which their computer is connected. Below is a quick breakdown of what can be accessed from various networks.

BJH (Limited to) SLCH (Limited to) Proxy (Remote Access) WUSM Off Campus
UpToDate Online
American Academy of Pediatrics Journals
Applied Clinical Informatics
Harriet Lane Handbook
Red Book Online
UpToDate Online
Unrestricted Access to All Becker Resources Unrestricted Access to All Becker Resources No Access without Proxy

Interlibrary Loan Policies

Who May Use Interlibrary Loan and Document Delivery

Interlibrary Loan and Document Delivery services are available for a fee to:

  • WU Medical School faculty, staff and students – $6.00 per request
  • WU Medical Center/BJH physicians, staff and students – $8.00 per request
  • WU Medical Center Alumni – $8.00 per request
  • Members of the Becker Medical Library – $13.00 per request
  • Non-affiliated (as time permits) – $20.00 per request

Loan Periods and Restrictions

For items borrowed from another library, the length of the loan period and any restrictions on using the item are determined by the lending library. The Bernard Becker Medical Library honors all rules established by lenders.

In general:

  • Most borrowed items have a 2 week loan period.
  • Some materials have much shorter loan periods.
  • Some materials may be restricted to use only within the Becker Library.
  • Some materials may have restrictions against photocopying.


  • You may request one renewal for each item borrowed unless the lending library indicates no renewals are accepted.
  • Use ILLiad to request a loan renewal.
  • Please request renewals at least 2 days before the item is due so we may contact the lending library for permission to renew.

Your obligations:

  • Borrowing materials from another institution is a privilege. You are expected to honor any restrictions that are stipulated by the lending library.

Special Loan Restrictions

Lending libraries sometimes place special restrictions on the use of loaned items, as explained below.

Library Use Only

The lending library will NOT allow the item to be taken from the Becker Medical Library. This means that you may check the item out from interlibrary loan, but you may NOT remove the item from the Becker Medical Library. We will hold your picture ID while you use the material within the library building. When you return the item, please tell us whether you are finished with the item or whether you want us to hold it for further use.

No Renewals

The lending library will NOT allow renewals. This is a condition for borrowing from them. Such items cannot be renewed and must be returned by the original due date.

No Photocopying

The lending library will NOT allow the item to be photocopied. There may be copyright restrictions on the item, or the item may be subject to damage during photocopying. Please honor this restriction so we may retain our borrowing privileges.

Time Required

During most of the year, it takes an average of 2 days to obtain an article and 5 days to obtain a book through interlibrary loan. These times may increase by 40%–50% during December due to holiday mail delays coinciding with increased end-of-semester workloads at the lending libraries. Many non-medical libraries do not lend at all during the winter holidays extending from mid-December through early January.

About 95% of the time it takes to fill your request results from processing that occurs outside of the Becker Medical Library. This includes the time required for the request to be passed thorough the OCLC or DOCLINE interlibrary loan systems through a succession of possible lending libraries that we have identified. Once a library agrees to provide a loan or photocopy, then that library retrieves the item from its collection, produces a photocopy when necessary, and ships the item. Time in transit to Becker Medical Library depends on the method chosen for shipping by the lending library. About 75% of the photocopy requests we receive are sent electronically via the Internet using a system called Ariel. About 15% of the articles are faxed. About 10% of the photocopy and most of the book loans are sent by the U. S. Postal service library rate, which is a slow process.

We cannot predict the delivery time for any particular request. We do know, however, that:

  • The average turn-around time for receiving books is 5.43 days.
  • The average turn-around time for photocopies is 24 hours.
  • If you have an emergency need for a book or document, please ask the interlibrary loan staff for assistance.

Notification of Interlibrary Loan Materials Received

When you register with ILLiad, you select the method that we will use to notify you when your requested item arrives in the Interlibrary Loan office from another library. We use one of two methods to notify you that an item has been received.

  • E-Mail
    If you request this option, ILLiad will send you an e-mail message telling you what item has arrived. If the item is held for pick-up, the message will tell you that the item is being held at the Becker Medical Library circulation desk. If the item is mailed to your address, the e-mail message will tell you the address to which we mailed the photocopy. If the item is a PDF or electronic copy, the e-mail will provide instructions for viewing and downloading the PDF file.
  • Phone
    If you request this option, we will call you at the number you listed in ILLiad as your daytime phone number. During the call, we will tell you about any items held at the circulation desk for you. We will not send any additional notification for items mailed to you.

Requesting Renewals

You may request renewal of your loan using ILLiad. Renewal policies for each item are determined by the lending library, not by the Becker Medical Library.

Renewal Request Procedure

  • Logon to ILLiad
  • Click on the View/Renew Checked Out Items button to display everything checked out to your username.
  • Select the item that you wish to renew by clicking on the appropriate transaction number button. You will then see detailed information about that request.
  • Check to see if renewals are allowed (there is a question toward the bottom of the page Renewals Allowed?). If renewals are allowed click on the Request Renewal at the top right hand corner of the screen. If renewals are not allowed, please return the book as soon as possible to avoid receiving overdue letters.
  • After renewing a request, you will be notified that This item has been renewed for another 2 weeks. There can be no further renewals.
  • Once the item has been renewed, the due date will automatically reflect the two-week renewal and the Renewals Allowed? will change to no.
  • Then click on Return to the List where you may view/renew other items checked out to your username. You may also choose to Exit to the Main Menu.
  • When you are finished using ILLiad, please exit by clicking on the button labeled Exit ILLiad System at the top of the Main Menu.

Returning Borrowed Items

Please return all Interlibrary Loan materials directly to the Becker Medical Library Circulation Desk.

When you return a book, microfilm reel, or other item you borrowed through Interlibrary Loan, please be sure that the ILLiad identification sticker remains on the item so it will be clearly identified as an interlibrary loan item. (Photocopies do not need to be returned.)

Cancelled Requests

We cancel about 12% of all Interlibrary Loan requests submitted. The most common reason for canceling a request is that the item is available in the Becker Medical Library. A few requests are cancelled because the same item has been requested multiple times by the same person. About half of the requests cancelled are cancelled for a variety of reasons beyond the control of you or the library staff.

If we cancel your request, ILLiad will send you e-mail explaining the reason for cancellation.

ILLiad’s Reason for Cancellation
Available – Becker Stacks The requested item is on the shelves of the Bernard Becker Medical Library.
Available – Becker Reserve The requested item is on Reserve in the Bernard Becker Medical Library.
Available – Becker Reference The requested item is available in the Bernard Becker Medical Library’s Reference section.
Available – Internet Full Text The requested item is available on the Internet. Some titles are freely available to anyone. Others can be accessed only from a Washington University School of Medicine IP address. These titles are cataloged in the Becker Library Catalog. The Web address for the title you requested is included in the e-mail from ILLiad.
Checked Out The item is owned by the Becker Library and is checked out to another reader. You may call Circulation at 314-747-0023 or use the Request/Hold feature in the library’s catalog to have the item recalled from the person who has it.
This is a Duplicate Request Very rapid multiple clicking of the ILLiad submit button may cause your request to be submitted more than once. Please remember that the buttons and links on Web pages should be clicked only once to perform an action.
Too New for an Interlibrary Loan Many libraries will not lend recently published books. Items published very recently may not yet be available in a library willing to lend the item. Journal articles may not yet be available in libraries when articles are cited or indexed before the journal issue is actually mailed to libraries.
Cannot obtain item by your deadline You specified a date after which you could not use the requested item. We are unable to obtain the item within your time limit. Please see Time Required to learn more about the time it takes to get an item through Interlibrary Loan.
Unable to Borrow Dissertation Usually, the only copy of any particular dissertation or thesis is located at the school where the author wrote the work. Many schools will not lend dissertations or theses.
Unable to verify your request as cited We cannot identify the publication you requested. If it is a book, you may have the wrong author or title. If it is a journal article, you may have the wrong journal title, incorrect volume number, year, or pages. With incorrect or incomplete information, it is not possible to obtain the item because possible lenders do not know what you need. You may be able to find a correct citation for the item you need by doing a literature search. Please consult a reference librarian for assistance.
This Item is Non-Circulating The libraries that own this item will not lend it. If you only need copies of a few pages from the item, you should resubmit your request as a photocopy request for those few pages.
We have exhausted all possible sources Although some libraries report owning the requested item, none of these libraries could or would supply the item. There are no other sources from which we can obtain the item.
Other A variety of miscellaneous reasons fall into this category. Additional explanation specific to the request will be included in the e-mail from ILLiad.

Interlibrary Loan Department Privacy Statement

Data We Require

If you request materials through ILLiad, we ask you to provide the minimum personal information to make it possible for us to deliver those materials to you.

Personal information requested by ILLiad is the minimum information that enables us to identify you as a student, faculty member or staff member of Washington University School of Medicine, of BJC North or South, or as a library member and to bill the necessary charges. For this we need to know your:

  • Name
  • ID or member number
  • Department or affiliation
  • Your departmental account number.

To deliver materials to you, we also need to know:

  • Your phone number or e-mail address so we may contact you about your request.

If you want materials delivered by mail or electronically we need:

  • Mailing address
  • Fax number
  • E-mail address.

To protect your personal data and information about your requests, you set a password that enables you to logon to ILLiad and access all your personal information and information about your requests. Only you know your password. It is encrypted and stored by ILLiad and cannot be read by anyone else.

How we use ILLiad Data

Your name, departmental affiliation and the bibliographic details about your request are sent to other libraries as part of the borrowing process. Your personal information allows us to easily and clearly identify incoming materials.

Information about your requests (not you) are retained for up to four years to allow us to demonstrate compliance with United States Copyright Law and with generally accepted copyright guidelines used by the library profession.

Information about the books and articles borrowed (not about individuals) for all clients is used to assist the library’s collection development personnel and instructions staff to improve the library’s collections or the library’s training program.

Copyright Law and Library Photocopying

The full text of the copyright law can be found in the United States Code, Title 17-Copyrights. Copyright owners are assigned exclusive rights to their works, including the right to reproduce those works. The law defines several limits on exclusive rights that allow other to make copies of copyrighted works. Those engaged in teaching and research are granted certain reproduction rights in §107. Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use.

Libraries are authorized to photocopy materials from their own collections for their clientele under the provisions of §108. Limitations on exclusive rights: reproduction by libraries and archives. Under the provisions of §108(d), the Becker Medical Library may photocopy a single article from a periodical or a chapter of a book and give the copy to a Washington University student, faculty, or staff member.

When obtaining photocopies of copyrighted works from other libraries through interlibrary loan, libraries must comply with the conditions defined in subsection 2(g) of §108. Limitations on exclusive rights: Reproduction by libraries and archives. The basic requirement is that Washington University must not receive copies in “such aggregate quantities as to substitute for a subscription to or purchase of such work.” Just how much copying would violate this provision is not defined in the law.

Journal Photocopies through Interlibrary Loan

The copyright law does not provide a quantitative definition of how many photocopies from a journal can be received by a library for interlibrary loan purposes. The National Commission on New Technological Uses of Copyrighted Works in 1978 issued guidelines to help libraries comply with the copyright law. Bernard Becker Medical Library, Washington University School of Medicine, complies with the CONTU Guidelines on Photocopying Under Interlibrary Loan Arrangements when obtaining your requested photocopy from another library:

For a given periodical title, within a given calendar year, we are allowed under the guidelines to obtain an institutional total of five (5) photocopies of articles published within the five years preceding the date of your request. For the sixth article and above, we have several alternatives for filling your request. We can either:

  • Pay a royalty to the owner of the copyright for each photocopy obtained (the quickest method when it is possible).
  • Find some means of purchasing an original copy of the work (usually impossible or involving long delays).
  • Attempt to borrow the entire work (usually impossible).
  • Decline to fill your request for a copy of the article (sometimes necessary).

Royalty Payments

The only practical method of quickly obtaining a copy of a journal article is to obtain a photocopy from another library and pay a royalty to the copyright owner, which is usually the publisher of the journal. We usually make such payments through the Copyright Clearance Center. For those journals not registered with the Copyright Clearance Center, we try to obtain a photocopy through a commercial document supplier. Such suppliers have their own arrangements for paying royalties to copyright owners. The Becker Medical Library pays the royalty payment.